Data assimilation research started in dynamic meteorology five decades ago to use observations systematically in order to improve the forecast skill of operational weather prediction models. Thus the field has been quite mature in large-scale dynamic meteorology for a number of years. The delayed development of data assimilation in oceanography was due first to the lack of a unifying focus such as weather prediction; second, to the lack of adequate datasets, with spatial/time coverage comparable to the meteorological one. The observational revolution of the 90's in global scale oceanography and the successes of satellite altimetry and scatterometry have spurred the beginning and rapid growth of oceanographic data assimilation in the last decade.
The synposium will emphasize four major objectives for data assimilaiton applications, in both meteorology and oceanography : 1) Model improvement; 2) Study of dynamical processes through state estimation; 3) Prediction of atmospheric and oceanic flows; 4) Observing sytem design.
Convenors: Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli (USA), Michael Ghil (USA)
Co-convenors: Philippe Courtier (UK), Motoyashi Ikeda (Japan)
International efforts at curbing the emission of ozone-depleting gases have met with initial success, as emissions have been reduced significantly and total atmospheric chlorine has begun to decline. However, there still are issues remaining with some of the CFC replacement compounds, as well as some compounds of natural or mixed origin. Although the new CFC replacements offer substantial relief for stratospheric ozone depletion, they still can contribute significantly to global warming. Radiative forcing by these gases, per molecule, is similar to that for the CFCs, many of them have atmospheric lifetimes of 10-50 years, and none of them offers the global cooling effects associated with CFC-induced ozone depletion. Consequently, these gases can have higher estimated global warming potentials than the gases they are replacing.
There are many naturally occurring substances which, albeit to a lesser extent, can influence ozone depletion and greenhouse warming. The shorter-lived of these compounds also play a significant role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer and troposphere. Results show the ocean to be a contributor of both volatile halocarbons and sulphur containing compounds to the atmosphere, but the specific sources and sinks within the ocean are poorly understood. The role of the ocean as a net source or sink of methyl bromide, for example, depends upon a fine balance between production and degradation in the ocean. Because marine data are sparse and inconclusive and atmospheric budgets often appear out of balance, the ocean's contribution to the atmospheric burden of these gases is often unresolved. Terrestrial sources have been invoked for a number of natural halogens, but systematic studies of these have been few.
The aim of this session is to bring together atmospheric, marine and biological scientists to look at the sources and sinks of a wide range of substances that have a potentially significant influence on climate. Papers dealing with all substances (with the exception of CO2) will be considered with particular focus on the CFC replacements and naturally produced compounds which hitherto have received little attention or for which results are still inconclusive.
Convenor: Denise Smythe-Wright (UK)
Co-convenors: Bruce W. Webb (UK, for IAHS), Douglas M. Whelpdale (Canada, for IAMAS), James H. Butler (USA)
A symposium in honour of Dr. Mohammed El-Sabh.
Geophysical hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, droughts,tsunamis,storm surges, wildfire, tropical cyclones and extreme weather events constitute major problem in many developing and developed countries. With the growth in world population, the increasing pressure on natural resources in newly developing areas, and the increasing cost and sophistication of engineering structures and technical installations, there is an urgent need to seek to understand the potential threats posed by natural hazards and to ascertain increasing preparedness and appropriate ways of mitigating the damaging effects.
Much has been accomplished since the onset of the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction(IDNDR). The aim of this Inter-Associations Symposium is to stimulate synergistic interactions between all geophysicists on common interests in the field of natural hazards, especially across disciplinary boundries. The scope seeks through contributed prsentations to recognize the technical and scientific progress made during the last ten years in research related to any aspects of geophysical hazards to accomplishing the goals set forth for the Decade, including risk assessment; the application of known preparedness and mitigation approaches; and the development and use of scientific and engineering knowledge to improve warning systems, the disaster preparedness and mitigation in practise.
Convenors: Tom Beer (Australia, IAPSO/IAMAS), Juan Manuel Espinosa-Aranda (Mexico, IASPEI), Yong Chen (P.R.China, IASPEI), Brad Scott (New Zealand, IAVCEI), Lars Gottschalk (Norway, IAHS), Susan McLean (USA, IAGA)
The symposium will be divided into three parts:
J25-A - ENSO variability. The largest interannual variability is associated with the tropical Pacific El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Efforts to understand and predict this phenomenon are an important component of current climate research. Papers are invited on the analysis and prediction of ENSO events and their associated widespread regional impacts.
Convenor: Michael Davey (UK)
J25-B - Seasonal-Decadal variability. The sucessful forecasting of climate from seasons to years in advance remains a major scientific challenge. The climate system varies substantially on intradecadal time scales, such as annually and quasi-biennially, and much of this variability is still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions may play some role in such variability, and may lead to possible predictability. Papers are welcome on any aspects of coupled variability and predictability on time scales from seasons to decades (CLIVAR-GOALS), and in particular, on coupled behaviour in monsoon variability, tropical and extratropical quasi-biennial signals, and mid-latitude modes such as the Pacific North American pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Papers which address aspects of variability of ocean and/or atmosphere circulation on seasonal and longer time scales are also welcome.
Convenors: David B. Stephenson (France), Per Knudsen (Denmark)
J25-C - Decadal-Centennial variability. The focus of this symposium will be on decadal to centennial variability and sensitivity. Recent studies have revealed a number of atmospheric and oceanic signals on the timescale from ten to hundred years, with possibilities for significant interactions between the atmosphere and ocean. Data and model examples of longer term variability have been seen especially in the Atlantic and Southern Ocean sectors, especially associated with the thermohaline circulation. Pacific modes include variability in the mid-latitudes associated with the gyre-circulation and possible interactions with long-term ENSO variability. Papers are welcomed on data analysis and numerical simulation of global or regional variability in the oceans, atmosphere, ice and other parts of the climate system.
Convenors: Shoshiro Minobe (Japan), Stephen M. Griffies (USA)
This session will focus on an assessment of our current fundamental understanding of the dynamics of rotating and/or stratified fluids and of the application of this knowledge to the prediction of aspects of the dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans. While the principal focus will be on systems for which rotation and stratification are both important, contributions will also be welcomed on studies which focus solely on either rotation or stratification effects. We encourage the submittal of any theoretical, numerical, laboratory or field experimental contribution related to rotating and/or stratified fluids that has potential application to the solution of problems related to atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. Topical areas of interest include, but are not limited to, (i) coherent structures; (ii) inertio-gravity waves; (iii) internal gravity waves; (iv) boundary effects; (v) orographic influence; (vi) turbulence; (vii) convection; (viii) non-linear interactions; (ix) instabilities; (x) jets; (xi) wakes; and, (xii) other shear layers.
Contributions dealing with the application of fundamental knowledge of rotating and/or stratified flows to areas such as: (i) the parameterization of sub-grid scales of Atmosphere and Ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs), (ii) the prediction of fluid structure interactions, and (iii) the development of hydraulic models, are also welcome.
Convenor: Don L. Boyer (USA)
Co-Convenors: Peter A. Davies (UK), David R. Fearn (UK)
This symposium will focus on the nature and effects of turbulence in the ocean and the atmosphere, where the turbulent eddies have scales of hundreds of metres and smaller, and on flows that are directly affected by such turbulence. Turbulence in the ocean can be loosely divided into two forms: that which occurs throughout the oceans via breaking internal waves and similar processes in the mixed layer, thermocline and deep ocean, and that which occurs in particular locations such as sea straits and near seamounts. In the atmosphere, a similar division can be made between "ubiquitous turbulence", and turbulence that is specific to particular phenomena and regions. The symposium will cover all flows where these forms of turbulence are important. Papers that describe the onset of turbulence, its physical properties and the factors that control it, and its effects on the larger scale environment such as mixing and transport, are sought, as well as flows that are influenced by such turbulence.
Convenor: Peter G. Baines (Australia)
Co-Convenors: Hideki Nagashima (Japan), G. A. Valentine (USA)
This Inter-Association Symposium, organized by the Joint Tsunami Commission, will cover all aspects of tsunami phenomena, whether scientific, operational, social or historical. Presentations will be grouped into the following main themes: (1) historical and contemporary observations (including paleotsunamis), (2) tsunami sources and seismotectonic aspects, (3) methods of numerical modeling, (4) estimation of the long-term risk, (5) improvements in operational warning, and (6) hazard reduction.
The focus will be on the application of modern data base technology (including Web-sites) to the presentation of tsunami data, different features of the tsunami generation mechanism, 3-dimensional run-up modeling, and on the development of a new methodology for long-term estimates of tsunami risk. Contributions from tsunami experts, numerical modelers, seismologists, oceanologists and marine geologists to any of the above themes are most welcomed.
Convenor: Viacheslav K Gusiakov (Russia)
Co-Convenors: Eddie N Bernard (USA), Kenji Satake (Japan), Yuichi Nishimura (Japan)
During the past decades, stable isotopes and trace substances (e.g., radioactive isotopes and elemental ratios) have found widespread application in modern and paleoceanographic circulation studies, as well as in marine paleoclimate research. The result has been a vast improvement in our understanding of modern circulation, as well as climate and the manner in which these proxies records ocean and climate history. The purpose of this symposium is to present and discuss recent advances in the development and use of these diverse methods to address the following scientific topics: (i) Water mass formation and circulation in the modern ocean, including the interaction of water with sea-ice and glacial ice; (ii) Paleoceanographic circulation studies; (iii) Calibration studies of modern circulation and paleoclimate proxies.
We encourage both traditional stable isotope contributions as well as studies which combine stable isotopes with other tracers, such as, for example, radioactive isotopes or elemental ratios to gain insight into the topics listed above in novel ways. The symposium will address both observational and model studies.
Convenor: Peter Schlosser (USA)
Co-Convenors: Eelco Rohling (UK), Joseph Ortiz (USA)
The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding of role of biogeochemical processes in the global scale marine environment, and in the factors which regulate them. These advances have resulted from key, critical experiments and observational programs (e.g., IRONEX, JGOFS, TRE and WOCE) which are continuing to bear intellectual fruit as analysis and synthesis proceeds. While many remarkable insights have been gained, there are still many unanswered questions. We would like to encourage contributions which both build on these newly established paradigms, and reveal the remaining major issues that need to be addressed. Some (but not all) of the issues include:
We invite both observationalists and modellers to contribute.
Convenor: Bill Jenkins (USA)
Co-convenor: Denise Smythe-Wright (UK)
Estuaries are one of the most complex coastal environments comprising large varieties of geomorphological, biogeochemical, physical and biological processes. Furthermore, estuaries are very sensitive to even minimum variabilities as well as those expected by the impact of any climatic change. It is now becoming evident that these environments cannot be studied from one or two single disciplines alone any longer, but by teams of multi and interdisciplinary researchers working within a wide range of space and temporal timescales. Therefore, the objective of the proposed interdisciplinary symposium is to provide a forum for discussion of the relevant estuarine process in general and also particular study cases.
Convenors: Maria Cintia Piccolo (Argentina), Gerardo M. E. Perillo (Argentina), Mohamed I. El Sabh (Canada)
This interdisciplinary session will concentrate on the dynamic interactions within the coastal and shelf regime controlled by physical, chemical and biological processes. These processes are formulated and parameterized using deterministic and statistical approaches based on field and model experiments. Important physical processes include the dynamics of wind, waves, currents and cross-shelf transport. Important biological processes are production and decomposition, grazing and mortality. The convenors welcome contributions on any of the above and related aspects of coastal and shelf processes. This symposium will bring together physicists, chemists and biologists.
Convenor: John Johnson (England)
Co-Convenor: Jürgen Sündermann (Germany)
The importance of closed, semi-enclosed and marginal seas has been extensively recognized in recent years not only because of their importance to the surrounding riparian countries but also as laboratory basins for the study of processes of global importance. Marginal seas are characterized by thermohaline circulations,deep water formation convective cells, complex local ecosystems ranging from strongly euthrophic to oligothrophic, which, among many others, are crucially important on the global scale and for climate issues.The symposium will be fully interdisciplinary with presentations related to the physical, chemical and biological properties of the basins and their interactions. Observational and modeling aspects will both be covered.
Convenors: Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli (USA), Fred Grassle (USA)
Mediterranean Sea: Mario Astraldi (Italy)
Mediterranean and Northern Seas: Gunnar Kullenberg (France)
Eastern Seas: Kentang Le (China)
Black Sea: Temel Oguz (Turkey)
Significant advances in information technology and numerical modelling and outstanding efforts of the oceanographic community to increase the density of oceanographic observations in all regions of the world ocean have made global water mass analysis a reality. The symposium will discuss all aspects of the life history of water masses from formation through spreading and mixing to decay. It will focuss on quantitative assessments of the role of water masses in climate variability and climate. It will present new developments in techniquesand observations for the determination of water mass formation rates and age and bring together researchers from all relevant disciplines, including regional oceanographers, tracer oceanographers and ocean modellers.
Convenor: Matthias Tomczak (Australia)
Co-convenors: Lynne Talley (USA), Mark Warner (USA), Matthew England (Australia)
Theoretical and observational studies of the circulation of ice and water in polar seas are considered. The ocean aspects include water mass transformation in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas and in the marginal seas of Antarctica, fresh water budget, and processes such as shelf convection, shelf-basin interaction, plume dynamics and open ocean convection. Sea ice aspects include the ice thickness distribution, ice melting, and modeling including new rheologies. Regional coupled ice-ocean models are included for polar seas as well as for freezing sub-polar areas.
Convenor: Peter Wadhams (UK)
Flows through constrictions and over sills are often hydraulically controlled and mix intensely. Often the flows are at least partially driven by density differences across the obstruction, and most of the transport is carried by density currents. In many cases these flows are the primary exhange between open waters and marginal seas and estuaries. Consequently, much work is being done with observations, numerical modeling, and laboratory experiments to understand and predict the control conditions and entrainment rates. This Symposium is planned to assess the state of these diverse efforts.
The Symposium will occupy one day. The morning session will be devoted to invited reviews and a few contributed talks. The afternoon will be a poster session with brief oral presenations. At the end, a raporteur will summarize and suggest future directions.
Convenors: Michael Gregg (USA), Jan Backhaus (Germany), Emin Özsoy (Turkey)
Significant advances have occurred in ocean optics during the past decade. This session will concentrate on recent advances in instrumentation, methodology, theory and modeling. While principal areas of focus will include both the practical understanding and scientific application of ocean color satellite imagery, contributions will be welcome on all areas of ocean optics. Topical areas of interest include, but are not limited to, (i) direct and indirect measurement of inherent optical properties; (ii) development and use of radiative transfer models; (iii) SeaWiFS, MODIS and other ocean color calibration/validation; (iv) activities related to the merging of diverse surface and satellite (OCTS, Polder, SeaWiFS, MODIS, etc.) data; (v) estimation of regional and global primary productivity and related biogeochemical fluxes; (vi) ecological consequences of UV penetration into natural waters.
Convenors: James Aiken (UK), Andre Morel (France), Ray Smith (USA)
This Symposium will focus on recent progress in understanding phenomena occurring in the deep oceansthrough use of manned research submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROV and AUV), acoustic tomography and in-situ long-term observatories. For example, venting of both hydrothermal and cold fluids from the deep ocean floor has provided a new picture of the mass and heat fluxes between the ocean and crust with possible implications for oceanography. In-situ observations by underwater cables are emerging to be important tools for monitoring time-variations of oceanic processes (whether periodic or sporadic). Acoustic tomography is capable of yielding 3-D snapshots of oceanographic conditions. We aim to synthesize the present status of research and to establish a new vision of oceanography in the next century.
Convenor: Kazuo Kobayashi (Japan)
Co-Convenor: Alan Chave (USA)
The aim of this one-day workshop is to bring together the international scientific community to exchange knowledge about the oceanographic processes in the coastal seas around developing countries. It will focus on the consequences of natural oceanographic processes and intense human activities on the physics, chemistry and biology and to identify the most important priorities for future research. Contributions are invited on a number of related themes with particular emphasis on recent studies on the oceanographic processes in these coastal seas; forces affecting the spatial and temporal distributions of the physical, chemical and biological properties in these seas; and identification of gaps in our knowledge to define priorities for future research. Preference will be given to interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary contributions.
Convenor: S. V. Durvasula (Kuwait)
Co-Convenor: E.C. LaFond (USA)
A symposium in honour of Henry Charnock.
Convenor for IAPSO: Robin Muench (USA)
Convenor for IAPSO: Hiroshi Kawamura (Japan)
Convenor for IAPSO: Philip Woodworth (UK)
Convenor for IAPSO: Jürgen Sündermann (Germany)
Convenor for IAPSO: Matti Lepparanta (Finland)
Convenor for IAPSO: Philip Woodworth (UK)
Convenor for IAPSO: Lesley J. Rickards (UK)
To promote the study of the oceans and the interactions that take place at its boundaries with the sea floor, coastal environment and atmosphere, through the use of physics, chemistry, mathematics and biogeochemisty.
IAPSO gives importance to involving scientists and students from developing countries in oceanographic activities.